Volcano News and Research. Latest scientific research on how volcanoes work, predicting volcanic eruptions, climate change due to volcanic eruption and more.
Updated: 4 hours 3 min ago
A new article describes the first up-close investigation of the largest underwater volcanic eruption of the past century.
Scientists provide evidence, for the first time, that a subtle tipping point of the chemistry of magmas clearly separates effusive from explosive eruptions worldwide.
In late December 2014, a submarine volcano in the South Pacific Kingdom of Tonga erupted, sending a violent stream of steam, ash and rock into the air. The ash plumes rose as high as 30,000 feet (9 kilometers) into the sky, diverting flights. When the ash finally settled in January 2015, a newborn island with a 400-foot (120-meter) summit nestled between two older islands -- visible to satellites in space.
Researchers analyzed high-resolution seismic velocity data from 36 seismograph stations across the island of Kyushu to identify variations before, during, and after the MW 7.0 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Velocity decreased in the region of the rupture fault when the earthquake struck, and then gradually recovered, although this recovery showed spatial variability. This variability corresponded to aftershock concentration and volcanic activity. The findings may be useful for disaster prediction and preparedness.
Most volcanoes erupt beneath the ocean, but scientists know little about them compared to what they know about volcanoes that eject their lava on dry land.
Researchers have studied the journey of magma, or molten rock, in one of Europe's largest and most active volcanoes, Mount Etna. They applied several techniques to create a more accurate picture of the volcano's plumbing system and how quickly the magma rises to the top to cause an eruption. Their findings contribute to our understanding of how and when volcanoes erupt.
After analyzing a database of geological records dated within the last 100,000 years, a team of scientists has discovered the average time between so-called volcanic super-eruptions is actually much less than previously thought.
With Mount Agung on eruption watch in Bali, a researcher notes that monitoring emissions from the volcano may aid volcanologists in determining whether or not an Agung eruption is imminent.
Calderas are huge topographic depressions formed by large volcanic eruptions. They sometimes experience an inflation of their floor of up to a kilometer, caused by magma injection. This process, dubbed 'caldera resurgence,' remains one of the least understood in volcanology. Researchers now show that non-erupted magma left after the caldera-forming eruption behaves as a 'rubber sheet' that inhibits the rise of the newly injected magma.
Shrinking glacier cover could lead to increased volcanic activity in Iceland, warn scientists in a new report.
Long Valley, California, has long defined the 'super-eruption.' About 765,000 years ago, a pool of molten rock exploded into the sky. Within one nightmarish week, 760 cubic kilometers of lava and ash spewed out in the kind of volcanic cataclysm we hope never to witness. A new study shows that the giant body of magma -- molten rock -- at Long Valley was much cooler before the eruption than previously thought.
Volcanic eruptions have been known to cool the global climate, but they can also exacerbate the melting of ice sheets, according to a new paper.
Giant lateral collapses are huge landslides occurring at the flanks of a volcano. Such collapses are rather common events during the evolution of a large volcanic edifice, often with dramatic consequences such as tsunami and volcano explosions. These catastrophic events interact with the magmatic activity of the volcano, as new research suggests.
More than 11 years after the Lusi mud volcano first erupted on the Indonesian island of Java, researchers may have figured out why the mudflows haven't stopped: deep underground, Lusi is connected to a nearby volcanic system.
Carbon dioxide measured by a NASA satellite pinpoints sources of the gas from human and volcanic activities, which may help monitor greenhouse gases responsible for climate change.
Researchers have determined that the Pacific Northwest was home to one of the Earth's largest known volcanic eruptions, a millennia-long spewing of sulfuric gas that blocked out the sun and cooled the planet. Only two other eruptions -- the basalt floods of the Siberian Traps and the Deccan Traps -- were larger, and they led to two of the Earth's great extinctions.
Building on existing information and databases relating to volcanic fatalities, scientists have, for the first time, been able to classify victims by activity or occupation and look at the distance of their death from the volcano.